Every that you ever wanted to know about denim
And not only.



  • A type of wet processing or wash that, because of the prolonged abrasion, adds a realistic aged aspect to the garment, and a softer hand.

  • An aspect and a treatment achieved with combined washing and sanding actions, to give the jeans a properly aged look.
  • B


  • The individuai cotton yarns, after spinning, are grouped and wrapped together over a wooden bali warp, for dyeing the warp-yarn.

  • So called because of the leg cut, which widens at the bottom, starting from the knee. Very tight on the hips, the trousers became very popular in the Seventies, when they changed completely the traditional cut of originai jeans and became a popular phenomenum. The style is going through a fashion re-vamp.

  • Also synonymous for jeans. But in any jeanswear or casualwear collection, "basics" are considered those continuative styles typical to each brand, that continue to have a stable sales success, beyond seasonal variations.
  • C


  • Heavy cotton weave with an orthogonal, evident structure, often made weather and endurance-proof by smearing, waxing or resins.

  • Cotton is carded, to be cleaned of impurities and shorter filaments and to line up the fibers in parallel. Ali is achieved thanks to metallic, indented cylinders.

  • A natural textile fiber: the fruit of a plant growing as Gossipium Erbaceum, whose downy flower is then carded, cleaned, spinned and combed. Grown in America's properly called "Cotton Belt" (covering the Southern States of Mississipi, Texas, Tennessee, South Carolina and Georgia) the American Cotton is considered amongst the best ones, while other productions are made in Egypt, Pakistan, Turkey and India.
  • D


  • MINIMAL washing, so to leave denim with its natural dark indigo blue.
  • E


  • With the rise of the eco-awareness and with the growth of the environmental disputes and needs which stress our planet Earth, the market has seen the necessity for less contaminating dye-stuff and for a safer recycling of the discharge waters, so to re-use them after a kind of purification.

  • The triumph era for ali Designer's Jeans: mirroring an indiscriminating consumeristic craze far status symbols. A category, those of designer's jeans, which became extinct in the late Eighties and early Nineties, but currently going through a revamp with certain brands appealing to young fashion victims.
  • F


  • A good fit is essential for jeans and it is always the result of carefully calibered anathomical proportions -between inner and outer legs lengths, hips width, anthro- pomorphical differences from the many man and woman types -adapted to suit single specialcuts and considering the variable fabric response.
  • H


  • It is so called the fabric touch and feelin relation to the weight,construction and eventual finish.

  • When denim gets washed many and many times to offer a very worn out look.
  • I


  • English measuring unit equal to 2.54 cm, which is used to indicate jeans wear size and length.

  • It's that very deep, and natural bluecolor, whose use goes back to the early history of man kind and which was originally extracted from the exotic lndigofera plani, indigenous to China and India. Indigo is by now synonymous with denim, even if the industrial production has long since stopped to use the wonderful yet unreliable and unpredictable plant, opting for chimica dyes which have the added benefits of color fastness and a faster and more controllable production schedule. Indigo must be the world most popular color!
  • J


  • An otherwise unknown tailor who has become famous for having invented the rivets. patented with Mr. Levi Strauss in 1873.

  • Word born to define the classic five pocketed denim pant, with the added rivets, bold contrasting stitching and fly buttons. The English Oxford Dictionary links the etymology to a colloquial modification of the word 'Genova' (see denim), and the term has now expanded to include all denim made garments.
  • L


  • Colloquially also used sometime as 'brand name'.ln its originai sense is considered a packaging accessory , indispensable to promote and define the product's identity.

  • Denim's standard weaving pattern is from 'left to right'. In this case the reverse is true: a more difficult -and thus more pricey and prized-weaving technique, also in 16 the finishing and sanforization parts, which is justified by the softer hand obtained after washing.
  • LOOM

  • Weaving machinery. For the cleverly marketed Vintage jeans-a late fad, also see collectors items-old and till then neglected and deleted pre-industrial looms have been put back into action. They are slower and narrower ( only 75cm in width against the modern 150cm), they need extra mantainance and control, but they recreate those special period fabrics that sophisticated consumers have become so fond of. The majority of those looms have ended up in Japan. But modern ones have been technologically fine-tuned so to reproduce those old weaving techniques, while retaining industriai speed and quality reliability, with results very close to the coveted originals.
  • M


  • A kind of cotton finish, using caustic soda to improve the luster of the fabric.

  • Denim fabric offered already 'washed' to jeans producers.
  • N


  • Jeans related term which indicates the slim wearability of the narrow leg style.

  • A ring-ring denim construction, whose fibers -both in weft and warp-look naturally irregular.
  • O


  • When denim is washed only once: it is truer, darker and ... less polluting.

  • A kind of indigo dye with a slight reddish tint, achieved with specialdye addictives, typically suited to vintage and original pieces.
  • P


  • Coloring formula which does not penetrate deeply into the fabric,but remains to the surface, gentily fading away with the repeated washes leaving a chalky color effect.

  • In the beginning jeans were dark, stiff and extra long and it took a while to make them wearable. The first wash was indeed a surprise, as their length could shrink to almost three sizes shorter. Not any more: the sanforized treatment pre-shrinks the cotton fibers to an adjusted and stable length.
  • Q


  • Todays' magie password and biggest consumers' catch. Everybody talks about it, but only few can truly offer it. Hard to obtain, implies serious research and high technology.
  • R


  • The most classic amongst ali jeanswear cuts: straight legged and linear, with a comfy hip line.

  • When both denim's indigo warp and greige weft are done with ring-spun yarns, the fabric results softer to the touch and is more evidently and irregularly slubbed or flamed.

  • Little metal or copper studs used to reinforce jeans weaker seams in all the neces-sary places. lnvented and patented by Jacob Davis and Levi Strauss in the late 1873, they stopped gold nuggets from tearing down goldiggers pockets.
  • S


  • A rustic constructed denimweave, linked with the primitive period, with a striking salt and pepper look, from the contrast between the indigo color and the greige cotton.

  • When denim was woven on those semi-industriai looms, their width was only 75 cm, thus the selvage, for pattern placing and -above all-for fabric-saving reasons, always ended up inside the outer trousers seam. Pants being unsanforized and extra long, their hem was commonly turned over and that's how the selvage carne up to the surface. lmportant jeanswear brands ali had different colored selvage, which became another mark of their distinction. With the current fashionable quest for originai jeans, the red selvage has been revamped, as if to certify and qualify their vintage status.

  • Defined by inches, they are based on the waist width and inseem leg length.

  • A kind of denim fabric with varìable proportions of elastan yarn added in the filling to give the fabric the required stretch and comfort qualities.
  • T


  • Jeans fit that indicates a narrowing of the leg's width.

  • A kind of denim aspect, darker in the indigo shade and slightly oily to the touch.
  • U


  • Or more simply, just " used". A kind of abrasive and placed treatment ( aver pockets, front thighs, fly, crotch and knees) obtained with sandblasting and combined with stonewashing.
  • V


  • In any dictionary the adjective means "a good year for the wine"but for the jean-swear trade it indicates good period pieces, with an authentic and original taste. VINTAGE is also a type of jeans treatment obtained with stonewashing or enzymes, which gives the garment a specially aged and worn out look.
  • W


  • Yarns which run parallel to the selvage (in denim they are indigo-dyed),interwea-ving the weft (or filling) ones at varied angles, depending on the fabric structure. Denim ones are diagonal.

  • Denim weights are measured in ounces (see oz). Somerare heavy denim can reach 15 oz and 1/2, while the traditional can vary from a max. of 14 oz and 3/4 (denim got lighter with the advent of stonewashing) to an originai 13 oz and 3/4. Medium weight denims are classified under 13 oz till1 0. Light ones from 9 to 7 oz ; belowwhich, till 4 oz, they come as chambray.